Abu al-Hasan Ali Ibn Muhammad Ibn Habib al-Mawardi known in Latin as Alboacen ( CE), was an Islamic jurist of the Shafi’i school most remembered for his works on religion, government, the caliphate, and public and constitutional law during a time of political turmoil. the Mu’tazila school of thought, the great (orthodox) Shafi’i jurist al-Subki (d. Al-Mawardi’s main political thought is embodied in his. Al-Ahham al-Sultaniyah. Only a small portion of the work is however devoted to political theory, the rest of . Mawardi, Abu al-Hasan al-. (d. ). Shafii jurist who wrote the most significant classical theoretical explanation of public law in relation to political theory.
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Saturday, 19 May Al-Mawardi. He thpught as teacher and then was appointed as judge. Al-Mawardi was a well known judge of Baghdad. When he was offered the office of Chief justice, he denied accepting the offer by saying people than him to work as CJ.
Theory of Caliphate or Imamate: Al Mawardi is a Muslim philosopher. Therefore, he presents his theory of imamate within the limits of Shariah. Allah has given as trust the control of his creatures to various governments so that the administration of the world might be properly carried on. According to Al-Mawardi Imamat is the base on which the rules and regulations of the community depend.
Mawardi says that the real motive of the institution is to follow the straight path and to strengthen the political bonds. Main Features of his concept of Imamat are as under: Al-Mawardi says that the institution of Imamat is the need of Shariah and not of reason. Through this Institution Allah almighty want to run the early administration in a proper way. This institution is to save Islam from the destructive propaganda.
Caliphate is the institution, which is the result of the versus of the Holy Quran. Quran stresses an ideal society where there is dominance of good over evils and where there is general obedience of the laws of Allah. The holy Quran is not to answer the question whether there is any need of Imamate? According to Al-Mawardi the need is proved either by consensus or reason. Quranic Verses give us general principles i.
But in practice the early period of Islamic state and modern thought is to oppose his view. Al-Mawardi holds that the Mawatdi Quran says nothing about this institution but it is the result of consensus. There is flexibility in Islam and this issue has been left to the Muslims community to decide.
Election of the Pollitical Al-Mawardi advocates that it is very important to elect someone as imam through the consensus of the community.
Mawardi is to describe the qualification of the voters.
He ignores artificial factors like age, Property and residence etc but those who can distinguish between good and bad, between right and wrong and between the wise and poise. No Absolutism in Caliphate: Al-Mawardi after studying history concludes that the forty years of Pious Caliphate politica, the Islamic democracy. There was no idea of absolute caliphate. Al-Mawardi is right to say that Caliphate was a responsible institution because basic elements of democracy were there.
After the period of the Pious Caliph, Caliphate converted into monarchy. Although Al-Mawardi was not a political philosopher and he did not the basics of the constitution but his theory of caliphate is of prime importance.
It paved way for further research. A problem in his idea is that Al-Mawardi stresses on the rights and prerogatives of the caliphs but ignores rights and obligations of the people. Concept of imam or caliph or sovereign. The first chapter pokitical his book, kitaab Al-Ahkam Al Sultania is to tell us about the sovereign of Imam. He describes method of appointment, powers, qualities and method of deposition of imam.
Imam is the highest leader fully obeyed and supported by the people of his state. Societies are need of such leaders who are trustworthy and who are supported by all the people of the state. Such a person is called imam or sovereign. Al-Mawardi is of the view that the office of imam established after the pouse caliphs.
Al-Mawardi says various factor made this institution controversial. Which family or tribe is suited for this office? Is it specific for a particular family or race? These questions are responsible for the sects in Islam. While a third group supported by Al-Mawardi is of the opinion that any person may be appointed as imam.
But on the bases of his qualities and merit. Al-Mawardi is of the view that imam is must because to maintain justice in the state and to differentiate good and bad.
Imam is a natural need of a state to organize the society and to solve mutual differences.
A candidate for this office should have the following qualities: Al-Mawardi says only male are allowed to be imam of an Islamic state. Female is not in position to become imam. Slave, even if they are free, are not allowed. His character must be exemplary.
If there is only a small stigma in the character thoughr the candidate, it pollutes purity of human conscience. It is to produce vagueness in the bright of human heart. A cruel person is neither in position to give rights to his people now can protect their rights.
Therefore, only those who are not misers are to contest for this office. A coward or weak person is never in position to fight with social and political evils and events. He is not in position to face up a. An instable person cannot become a good ruler. The person who feels fear cannot prove himself a good leader. An emotional person is not in position to handle difficult situations. An imam should have the qualities like foresightedness and deep sightedness. His opinions must be mature.
A person of raw-opinion has no command. Physically and sensually fit: Therefore, his physically fitness and sensitivity are must. Weakness in organs and senses is to inversely influence administration. Mumem- obedient of Shariah: So, he must be moment.
Allim, Faqih and preacher: A person who pokitical no knowledge of Islam and who has no command in fiqa, is not true and effective imam. He is then to represent ignorance. He should preach Islam. A good ruler is that who choice of the Majority is to opt for such a ruler. Al-Mawardi describes qualification for the office of the imam.
Al-Mawardi – Wikipedia
The most significant may be summarized as follows: Imam must be male Muslims. He must be free and adult. His senses and organs are right. According to Al-Mawardi, imamate comes into being through thoughr electoral process. This office therefore, is the outcome of Ijma. People have been empowered to elect the best one among them as caliph.
He quotes a Hadith: Al-Mawardi describes two methods. Elected by hhought majority of the electorates or. Nominated by the existing imam. Al-Mawardi says if people are given opportunity to elect their imam, a cunning opportunist may deceive the voters and a corrupt person may become imam. This method is suitable only if qualities of the voters are also assessed. If there is a limited number of a voter so, there will be more chance to elect the best one as imam.
The political thought of Abu Al-Hassan Al-Mawardi
He is of the view that this method is suitable only if qualities of the voters are also assessed. If there are a limited number of voters so, there will be more chance to elect the best one maawrdi imam. This is followed by the allegiance of the people to be loyal to the new Imam. Al-Mawardi holds that the election of a less qualified in the presence of a more mawzrdi is valid if the elected one fulfills the requisites qualification.
He also holds that if there is only one candidate for this office, he automatically becomes caliph and there is no need of election. There is no capacity of two imams at the same time. This method is also suitable because an imam is nominated keeping in view the determined qualities. He is of the view that there consensus on this point that the existing imam can nominate his successor.